|Chief Victorio a.k.a.|
September 4, 1879: Ojo Caliente, Arizona; As Victorio became more and more hate filled, he began to mutilate bodies. Soon after breaking out of the San Carlos Reservation, Victorio and the men struck at Captain Hooker and Company E of the Ninth stealing forty-six of their horses. In the aftermath, five Buffalo Soldiers lay dead with their bodies staked to the ground. They were Sergeant Silas Chapman, Privates Lafayerre Hoke, William Murphy, Silas Graddon and Alvrew Percival. Victorio and his band escaped.
September 10, 1879: By this time, nine settlers had been killed by Victorio's band and other groups of Apaches had joined in the fighting. All of the Ninth's Companies with Apache and Navaho scouts were in the field, always one step behind Victorio. Thousands of soldiers would continue this scenario for the next year, skirmishing Victorios' band over thousands of grueling miles, in the worst of conditions.
September 16, Black Range Mountains, New Mexico: Lieutenant Colonel Dudley with Captain Dawson's B Company and Hooker's E were ambushed and trapped by Vicrorio's warriors. They were rescued by Captain Beyer and Lieutenant Hugo of Companies C and G. After a day of fighting, the soldiers broke off the engagement. Five soldiers, three scouts and thirty-two horses lay dead after the bloody battle.
November 1879: The Candelaria Mountains, Mexico: Victorio and his warriors ambushed and killed fifteen Mexican citizens from the little village of Carrizal, who were looking for cattle thieves. Later, eleven more citizens were killed while searching for those what had not returned. The Mexican government telegraphed the U.S. commander in the area, to inform him that they were after Victorio, which would probably drive him back into Texas.
January 9-May 1880: Major Morrow, who had assumed command of operations in Southern New Mexico, sent the Buffalo Soldiers of the Ninth against Victorio's band many times during this period. In most of these cases, Victorio's war party fought off the soldiers. Sometimes the fighting ended quickly. At other times, it lasted for long hours.
May 1880: General Sheridan assigned Colonel Grierson's Tenth U.S. Cavalry to assist in the capture of Victorio. Instead of going into New Mexico, Colonel Grierson felt Victorio would come to Texas to raid. Grierson also decided to change his strategy in confronting Victorio. Instead of his men chasing Victorio across the desolate countryside, he would post them at the canyon passes and water holes he thought Victorio would use.
May 12, Bass Canon west of Fort Davis:
Eight Mescalero warriors attacked a wagon train
killing two settlers and wounding two. Captain Carpenter of the Tenth U.S.
Cavalry with Company H pursued them to the Rio Grande. He was convinced they
were on their way to join Victorio.
|Last of the Seminole-|
|Negro Indian Scouts,|
|1913-1914. New York|
|Public Library *|
August 6, 1880, Rattlesnake Springs, Texas: Captain Viele was placed in charge of Companies C and G of the Tenth as they waited for Victorio's approach. At mid-afternoon their long wait was rewarded. Slowly Victorio's warriors advanced unaware of the ambush. Seconds before the signal to fire was given, Victorio sensed the danger and halted his men. The troopers opened fire. The warriors swiftly withdrew out of range. Needing water and believing there were only a few soldiers, Victorio immediately attacked. Carpenter and B and H companies counter attacked, temporarily halting the Indians advance. Meanwhile, a strong unit of Victorio's band struck at the army wagons that were in route to the springs. They were beaten off, and soon rejoined Victorio's contingent. Victorio's warriors repeatedly charged the troopers to reach the water. Finally, in near darkness, one last attempt was made to reach the spring. It failed and Victorio fled with the troopers in furious pursuit. The chase ended without further bloody contact. With Colonel Grierson's strategy in place, all mountain passes and water holes were now covered by the troopers.
August 9th: Victorio's supply camp was discovered. His guards retreated, leaving twenty-five head of cattle, dried beef and pack animals.
August 11, 1880: The Buffalo Soldiers with Captains Carpenter and Nolon found Victorio and his warriors. In the heat of the thunderous chase, the horses in Carpenter's Company gave out, leaving Nolon's troopers to continue the chase. Victorio's warriors crossed the Rio Grande River into Mexico before Nolon's troopers could catch them. Victorio, like many times before, had escaped. Thus ends the "Battle of Rattlesnake Springs". Soon after Victorio's return to Mexico, its government gave the U.S. military, permission to cross into Mexico with the expressed intention of capturing Victorio dead or alive.
October 4, 1880: Ten companies of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry were placed inside Mexico at the Rio Grande to stop Victorio from returning into Texas. The Tenth and Colonel Jaoquin Terraza's Mexican forces located Victorio and his band. Five days later, the Mexican government informed the American forces their presence in Mexico was no longer needed. The Buffalo Soldiers left under protest. Colonel Grierson asked General Sheridan for permission to return to Mexico, permission was denied.
October 14, 1880: Tres
Castillos Mountains, Mexico; Colonel Terrazas and his Mexican troops surrounded
Victorio's camp and attacked. Before the morning was over Victorio, sixty
warriors and eighteen women and children lay dead. Sixty-eight women and
children were taken prisoner.
Death road with Victorio, as silently as a shadow, when he and his warriors returned toMexico. With Victorio's War at an end, the Trans-Pacos area was somewhat at peace. Colonel Grierson reported that during "Victorio's War", the Tenth U.S. Cavalry lost three troopers and saw three wounded. He also reported trooper Private Wesley Hardy as missing in action.
After completing this campaign, the Tenth was transferred to the Department of Arizona. They were engaged once again in a campaign against Apaches, who this time, was under the leadership of Chief Mangus and the Apache Kid. In September 1886 a detachment from the Tenth Cavalry captured Chief Mangus, the last of the warring Apache chiefs on the Arizona frontier.
Background Event: Chief Sitting Bull escapes
to Canada. Crazy Horse surrenders, but is later murdered by a
Ghost Dance: Illustrated & Pictorial with an analysis of content & intent of photographer.
62nd & 65th Regiments U.S. Colored Troops, with History & Soldiers' Names* Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.
Preservation Issues, Black Missourians in the Civil War, Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.
The Battle of Glasgow- Includes 62nd Regiment USCT. Pictures, maps and references. Excellent
"Additional Notes on the Battle of Glasgow on October 15, 1864."
New research and maps; Excellent
Mid-Missouri Round Table- This Civil War historical Web site presents detailed documented accounts of military engagements, with pictures, maps, and references, plus a calendar of association events. Excellent Site.
Palmito Ranch, The Last Battle of the Civil War: A Gentleman's Agreement Broken*
COLUMBIA CEMETERY Columbia, Missouri- The Columbia Cemetary could be the only known cemetary in Missouri in which United States Colored Infantry, Civil War Veterans are buried. You will find 31 graves from the following regiments; 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 13th, 18th, 54th, 56th, 60th, 62nd, 65th, 67th, and the 68th. They are in very poor condition.
Civil War Medicine- Excellent
War of the Rebellion Journal Contents (1880 - 1901)- The War of the Rebellion is a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies published under the direction of the Secretary of War. It includes all official General & Regimental communications. Helps to know the theater of war, unit, month and year.
The United States Civil War Center-Thousands of links, including Native Americans
Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System
United States Army Military History Institute
The Louisiana Native Guards- Excellent Site
Black Civil War Soldiers of the Trans-Mississippi West
Union Army Regimental Histories
Cindi's List of African- American Sites
American Indians In The Civil War
Veteran Military Websites
Military & Pension Records for Union Civil War Veterans
Civil War Artillery Sites
Constitution of the United States-Biographies of the signing and nonsigning delegates to the Constitutional Convention, Bill of Rights, and much more. Excellent
THE OVERLAND TRAIL: An Official Millennium Trail. This site is very comprehensive in its analysis of the everyday aspects of living and traving in the West. Excellent
Dive and Discover- Join scientists as they dive to the mid-ocean ridge thousands of meters deep. Excellent
Travel thirty-eight states by motorhome, and experience their wonder and history through interactive experiences. Excellent
50 STATES.com -
Complete information on each State
Project Gutenberg - Download pre-1923 classic books from the start of this century and previous centuries, from authors like Shakespeare, Poe, Dante. Titles: Sherlock Holmes, Tarzan, Alice's adventures in Wonderland, and thousands of others. Excellent
Library of Congress American Memory Lessons, Grades 4-12
Hperhistory Timeline -
Click on the 3,000-year timeline to access relevant maps, biographies and profiles of people, places and events. Excellent
Blue Web'n- A Library of Blue Ribbon learning sites on the Web. Excellent
The Wild, Wild West This site provides a multiplicity of "Excellent" links.
EduScapes -A Website for Life-Long Learners.
Websites and Resources For Teachers
Los Angeles County Schools- K-12 Lesson Plans
St.Johns K-12, Fl. SJCSD Black History Websites
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A major source for good books, recommended reading, and tons of rated websites!
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POETRY- You'll find everything here.
Federation of American Scientists- Includes video clips and much more. Excellent
NASA- Photo Gallery; Excellent
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National Geographic- Excellent
A WWW Vitural
People- Excellent site with excellent photographs.
Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators
Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Native American Tribal Colleges & Universities
Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities
Yaho0ligans-A Web guide for kids
Reach-it: A very useful site!
The American Veterinary Medical Association:
Animal health, safety, buying, pet loss, careers, kid's corner
Environmental Protection Agency-There is also a link for kids.
Shareware & Freebees
CSUS LIBRARY- Offers a multiplicty of services including, online applications for more than 1,700 undergraduate colleges, as well as graduate programs.
National Achievement Scholarship
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2001 Colleges, College Scholarships, and Financial Aid page
United Negro College Fund
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Afrigeneas Home Page
Amistad Research Center
American Historical Text Archive-This archive, housed at Mississippi State University, is international in scope.
U.S. Colored Troops -
Contains the names of over 230,000 soldiers of the USCT.
New Orleans Public Library
Pennsylvania Department: African-American genealogy
Kentucky Department for Libraries and
Archives -"Archival Reference Services", accepts certain written requests for genealogy searches.
Josephculligan.com Hundreds of sources
The Constitution of the United States: Full Text
Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System Name Search- I found my granfather by leaving out the Unit No. (or Ordinal) info.
National Archives and Records Administration
Genealogy & Soundex Locator
Ordering Pension & Military Records
Selected Civil War Photographs & Searchable Index
Library of Congress
The White House
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Web Directory-This site has everything on the topic from restrants to
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SOLDIERS & INDIAN WARS* Topic Page Links.|
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Major Reno's Account
Chief Crazy Horse's Monument
Lipan, 6th-8th grades- Excellent
Richard Henry Pratt- Controversial founder of Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Includes Hampton Insitute, the first non- Christian school accepting Native Americans. Excellent
Ryder Collection, 362 Color paintings & photos of Native American scenes, and artifacts, with archival data.- Click on all paintings and photos to enlarge. Smithsonian Institution; Excellent
MAPS: Geographical Information Systems- Explores Native American lands, history, artifacts, current places, and much more. Excellent
Twin Territories, Oklahoma-Indian Territory Project.
Legendary Indian Leaders Speak
American Indian Treaties, Law and Issues
This site provides up to the minute information on tribal issues currently in legislation.
The American Indian Page
Native American Resources
American Indians In The Civil War
The United States Civil War Center: Thousands of links, including Native Americans.
Bill's Aboriginal links-Provides a listing of international native sites. Excellent
Early Native Americans Texas Maps
The National Japanese -American Historical Society
katonk.com-Nisei, Military & Events
A History of the Japanese-American Internment
Chinese Culture Net
Chinese Language Information Page
Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library
The Center For Southeast
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Fort Clark, Texas
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International Light Horse Cavalry
The 61 Cavalry- The only unmechanised mounted cavalry regiment in the world. The genesis of modern polo.
Strathcona Museum Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Regimental Museum
Nintheenth Century British and Indian Armies- Very large
photographic and genealogical resource for 19th century British and Indian armies, soldiers, and
Anglo- Indians (India) families.
K Troop The New South Wales Lancers- Allies WW1&2
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